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The University of Iowa Libraries

Guide to the University of Iowa Department of Physical Education for Women: Women's Recreation Association records

Collection Overview

Date Span: 1920-1975
Creator: University of Iowa Department of PE for Women: Women's Recreation Association
Extent: 8.50 linear feet.
Collection Number: IWA0691
Repository: Iowa Women's Archives
Summary: WRA provided college women opportunities to participate in sports, either intramural or as a member of a sport club

Access: The records are open for research.

Use: Copyright to many of the records is held by The University of Iowa.

Acquisition: The records (donor no. 257) were transferred by the University of Iowa Department of Sport, Health, Leisure and Physical Studies in 1995.

Preferred Citation: University of Iowa Department of Physical Education for Women:  Women's Recreation Association records, Iowa Women's Archives, The University of Iowa Libraries, Iowa City.

Repository: Iowa Women's Archives
Address: 100 Main Library
University of Iowa Libraries
Iowa City, IA 52242
Phone: 319-335-5068
Curator: Kären Mason
Email: lib-women@uiowa.edu
Website: http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/iwa

In 1900 the Department of Physical Culture and Athletics at the State University of Iowa (now the University of Iowa) had only one woman member, an assistant in charge of physical training for women. By 1924 the Department of Physical Education was established with four departments: intercollegiate athletics, physical education for men, physical education for women, and intramural games. By that year every member of the women's staff was a graduate of a physical education school and a major field of study in Women's Physical Education was established. The women's physical education program became a pioneer in the development of graduate study and professional training. Elizabeth Halsey headed the department from 1924-1955. Gladys Scott, who received the first PhD in women's physical education from the University of Iowa in 1937, succeeded Halsey as department chair.

The athletic/physical education departments were later reorganized in a variety of configurations including the Department of Physical Education and Dance (1976-1987), Physical Education and Sport Studies (housed within the Division of Physical Education) (1987-1993), the Department of Sport, Health, Leisure and Physical Studies (1993-2000), the Department of Health, Leisure and Sport Studies (2000-2001) and the Department of Health and Sport Studies in 2000. Physical education is no longer offered as a field of study.

The Women's Athletic Association (WAA), an intramural organization with both an athletic and social focus, was organized in 1911 to "promote a spirit of fair play and sportsmanship among girls." The WAA offered a variety of clubs, including Orchesis (dance), Seals (swimming), outing, hockey, canoeing, archery, badminton, tennis, basketball, and handicrafts. The group sponsored tournaments, play days, intramurals, sport club activities, classes in social dancing, and all-freshmen parties. In 1941, the name of the organization changed to the Women's Recreation Association (WRA).

The WAA/WRA provided college women opportunities to participate in sports, either intramural or as a member of a sport club, as there were no varsity sport teams available for women at The University of Iowa. Intercollegiate competition was not seen to be in the best interest of women, a sentiment held strongly by the women physical educators at Iowa and around the country, and generally supported by a male-centered and male-dominated sport culture. This philosophy held until the late 1960s, an important period of growth and transition for women's sports. Despite the department's public stance against interscholastic athletic competition for women, WRA members competed regularly in such sports as field hockey, golf, fencing and riflery, traveling to other schools and hosting tournaments at The University of Iowa.

Starting in the 1968-1969 season, many of the WRA sport clubs began participating in more formally recognized intercollegiate competition-a change which reflected a shift in the philosophy of the leaders in physical education for women toward athletic competition. In some cases, the WRA recreational club team and the intercollegiate team were distinct entities, but in most cases, the WRA team was the intercollegiate team. By the 1971-1972 season, certain sport teams were specifically identified as "intercollegiate," although they were still affiliated with the WRA. This transition can be observed in the sport club files from this period. Intramural and intercollegiate sport folders are marked as such whenever possible.

The Women's Recreation Association (WRA) records date from 1920-1975 and measure 8.5 linear feet. These records consist primarily of newspaper clippings, annual files and sport club files, which document and describe the organization's wide variety of social, athletic, and administrative activities. The annual files include membership lists, handbooks, minutes, schedules and Play Day programs. The WRA records also include a large selection of Sport Guides, rules and regulations designed specifically for women's sports. The records are arranged in the following series: Administrative records, Annual files, Financial records, Handbooks from other schools, Newspaper clippings, Social activities, Sport clubs, Sport Guides, and Artifacts.

The Administrative records series (1923-1971) includes the WAA and WRA constitutions, membership lists, reports, schedules, Board of Director's duties, publicity, and other miscellaneous administrative records.

The Annual files series (1943-1973) provides documentation of the activities, officers, committee work and events offered each year. Sport and recreation activities are filed under the name of the sport club.

Included in the Financial records series (1942-1972) are budgets and receipts for the first women's intercollegiate athletic teams in the late 1960s. Account books and invoices complete this series.

The Handbooks from other schools series (1939-1971) is comprised of WAA and WRA handbooks from other colleges and universities around the country, primarily from the mid-1940s to the 1960s. Included, is one handbook from 1939 that details how to organize a girl's athletic association and how to become a member of the Iowa State High School Girls Athletic Association.

The Newspaper clippings series (1920-1954, 1968-1969) offers a record of the many activities and events sponsored by the WRA.

The Social activities series (1945-1960) consists of a select group of special events: University Carnival, Open House, Old Gold Days, Play Days and Sports Days. Most social activities are documented in the annual files.

The Sport clubs series (1933-1973) ranges from Archery to Volleyball and everything in between, including Crafts, Roller Skating and Tumbling. This series contains sport club records, which document the wide variety of sport and recreation activities available to university students. Club activities, intramurals and extramurals (intercollegiate competition) are all represented.

The Sport Guides series (1926-1975) consists primarily of sport guides from the "Official Sports Library for Girls and Women" published for the National Section for Girls' and Women's Sports (NSGWS). These books include rules, standards, training, coaching and officiating techniques designed specifically for females. The series is divided by sport and does contain a few guides that are not gender-specific.

The Artifacts series (1931-1969) consists of Women's Rifle Team patches a medal, a State Sportsday award, and a fencing membership pin.
University of Iowa Department of Physical Education for Women records (IWA). C. Pauline Spencer papers (IWA):  Spencer was a 1923 graduate of the University's Department of Physical Education for Women and a standout athlete in many sports.
 
N. Peggy Burke papers (IWA): Burke was a faculty member in the University of Iowa Department of Physical Education for Women.
 
Christine Grant papers (IWA): Grant was the University of Iowa's Women's Intercollegiate Athletics Director and a faculty member in the University of Iowa Department of Physical Education for Women.

Browse by Series:
Series 1: ADMINSTRATIVE RECORDS
Series 2: ANNUAL FILES
Series 3: FINANCIAL RECORDS
Series 4: HANDBOOKS FROM OTHER SCHOOLS
Series 5: NEWSPAPER CLIPPINGS
Series 6: SOCIAL ACTIVITIES
Series 7: SPORTS CLUBS
Series 8: SPORTS GUIDES
Series 9: ARTIFACTS

  • Series 1: ADMINSTRATIVE RECORDS
  • Box 1:
  • Activity Club Plan (WAA)
  • Administrative records (2 folders) - 1956-1965
  • Board of Directors: Election display
  • Board of Directors: Information on application system
  • Board of Directors: Duty sheets - 1961, 1965
  • Board of Directors: Applications (6 folders) - 1956-1961
  • Club Advisors' Duties - 1970-1971
  • Club Directors' Duties - 1970-1971
  • Constitutions and By-laws (2 folders) - 1925-1968
  • Constitutions and By-laws: Collected from other schools - 1940-1969
  • Correspondence - 1930, 1934
  • Facility schedules, undated
  • Handbooks - 1923-1932
  • Intramural reports - 1941-1945
  • Intramural forms, undated
  • Membership lists - 1935-1938, 1943-1944
  • Newsletter, undated
  • Organizational chart
  • Policy statement on extramural competition for women
  • President's reports - 1937-1955
  • Box 2:
  • President's reports - 1937-1955
  • Publicity: WAA report for yearbook - 1937
  • Publicity: Reports - 1941-1945
  • Publicity: Fliers and sign-up sheets - 1960-1969
  • Publicity: Fliers - 1970-1979
  • Publicity: Bulletin board materials, undated
  • Publicity: Miscellaneous, undated
  • Secretary's Report and Membership Roll - 1928-1931
  • Sportscope (The Athletic Institute Newsletter) - 1961-1962
  • "Suggested Topics for Faculty Discussion"
  • "A Survey of Recreational Interests of Women Students at the University of Iowa" - 1970
  • University Point System
  • Series 2: ANNUAL FILES
  • Box 2:
  • Annual Files (7 folders) - 1943-1952
  • Box 3:
  • Annual Files (17 folders) - 1952-1965
  • Annual Files (minutes) - 1964-1968
  • Box 4:
  • Annual Files (3 folders) - 1965-1968
  • Annual Files (calendar) - 1968-1969
  • Annual Files (2 folders) - 1968-1973
  • Series 3: FINANCIAL RECORDS
  • Box 4:
  • Treasurer's manual - 1952-1954
  • Reports and budgets - 1942-1969
  • Budget information - 1970-1972
  • Budget forms
  • Receipts and invoices - 1953-1954
  • Receipts and invoices - 1968-1969
  • Box 5:
  • Receipts and invoices (2 folders) - 1969-1972
  • Account book (2 folders) - 1970-1971
  • "Successful Financial Plans for School Athletic Departments" - 1956
  • Miscellaneous, undated
  • Box 21:
  • Financial records: Account book - 1951-1968
  • Series 4: HANDBOOKS FROM OTHER SCHOOLS
  • Box 5:
  • Iowa State High School Girls Athletic Association - 1939-1940
  • University of Arizona [WAA] - 1952-1953
  • Ball State University [WAA] - 1947-1948
  • Bates College [WAA] - 1948-1949
  • Beloit College (2 folders) [WAA and WRA] - 1947-1948
  • University of California (2 folders) [WAA] - 1946-1947
  • University of Chicago [WAA] - 1948-1949
  • Drake University (4 folders) [WRA] - 1962-1969
  • Duke University [WAA] - 1948-1949
  • Grinnell College [WRA] - 1968-1969
  • Florida State University [WAA] - 1949-1950
  • University of Illinois (3 folders) [WAA] - 1943-1949
  • University of Illinois [Women's Sports Association (WSA)] - 1963-1964
  • Illinois State Normal University [WRA] - 1946-1947
  • Indiana University (2 folders) [WRA] - 1968-1970
  • Iowa State Teachers College [WRA] - 1948-1949
  • Miami University, Ohio [WAA] - 1948-1949
  • Mills College (2 folders) [Athletic Association (AA)] - 1947-1949
  • University of Minnesota (2 folders) [WAA] - 1948-1961
  • University of Missouri [WAA] - 1948-1949
  • Montana State College [WAA] - 1948-1949
  • New Jersey College for Women, undated [AA]
  • New York University , undated [WAA]
  • University of North Carolina, Greensboro [Recreation Association] - 1962-1963
  • Northwestern University [WAA] - 1948-1949
  • Ohio State University (2 folders) [WRA] - 1968-1970
  • University of Oregon [WAA] - 1948-1949
  • Oregon State University, undated [WRA]
  • Penn State University (2 folders) [WRA] - 1958-1960
  • Purdue University [WRA] - 1963-1964
  • Smith College [AA] - 1948-1949
  • Texas State College for Women (TSCW) [WRA] - 1948-1949
  • Trinity College , undated [AA]
  • University of Wisconsin [WAA] - 1948-1949
  • University of Wisconsin (3 folders) [WRA] - 1968-1971
  • Series 5: NEWSPAPER CLIPPINGS
  • Box 6:
  • Chronological (9 folders) - 1935-1944
  • Box 7:
  • Chronological (9 folders) - 1945-1954
  • Chronological - 1968-1969
  • Newspaper clippings, Undated
  • Box 20:
  • University of Iowa Memory Book newspaper clippings - 1920-1926
  • Series 6: SOCIAL ACTIVITIES
  • Box 7:
  • University Carnival - 1945-1951
  • Open House - 1952, 1953
  • Play Days - 1950-1956
  • Old Gold Day (2 folders) - 1958-1960
  • State Sportsdays - 1966-1970
  • Series 7: SPORTS CLUBS
  • Box 7:
  • Archery (2 folders) - 1936-1970
  • Box 8:
  • Badminton (2 folders) - 1936-1968
  • Badminton (intercollegiate) - 1968-1972
  • Badminton (intramurals) - 1969-1972
  • Basketball (3 folders) - 1934-1965
  • Basketball (3 folders) (intramurals) - 1968-1972
  • Basketball (intercollegiate) - 1968-1972
  • Basketball Play Days - 1939-1941
  • Basketball Scorebook (2 folders) - 1968-1970
  • Billiards (intramurals) - 1971-1972
  • Bowling (intramurals) - 1953, 1958-1960, 1962-1965, 1972
  • Box 9:
  • Bowling (intercollegiate) (2 folders) - 1958-1971
  • Camping - 1957-1960
  • Canoeing
  • Canoeing Club - 1934-1935, 1936-1937
  • Canoe Capers (5 folders) - 1954-1959
  • Canoe Capers Publicity fliers, undated
  • Crafts - 1934-1954
  • Dance - 1964-1965
  • Equestrian - 1965
  • Fencing (intercollegiate) - 1967-1972
  • Fencing Rules
  • Fencing Equipment catalogs
  • Field Hockey (2 folders) - 1933-1958
  • Field Hockey (intercollegiate) - 1968-1972
  • Box 10:
  • Field Hockey (intramurals) - 1970-1971
  • Field Hockey Correspondence - 1948-1958
  • Field Hockey Membership lists - 1950-1959
  • Field Hockey Official score book - 1946-1949
  • Field Hockey Midwest Hockey Umpiring Tournament, Iowa City - 1949
  • Field Hockey WRA Hockey Clinic - 1958
  • Field Hockey Constitution and By-laws - 1959
  • Field Hockey "Hockey: How to Coach, Umpire and Organise" - 1952
  • Field Hockey The Eagle (USFHA publication) - 1947, 1949, 1952, 1953
  • Field Hockey USFHA membership committee instructions, undated
  • Field Hockey Hockey Play Days, undated
  • Field Hockey Publicity flier, undated
  • Golf - 1953-1954, 1956-1957, 1959-1965, 1970
  • Golf (intercollegiate) - 1962-1964, 1966, 1968-1972
  • Gymnastics (intercollegiate) - 1969-1971, 1973
  • Hawkeye Hoofers [outdoor activities] - 1941-1946
  • Hick Hawks [country dancing club] - 1942-1952
  • Outing - 1936-1964
  • Orchesis - 1953
  • Paddleball (intramurals) - 1970-1972
  • Penguins [synchronized swimming] - 1956-1963
  • Rifle - 1955-1960
  • Rifle (intercollegiate) - 1960-1963
  • Box 11:
  • Rifle - 1964, 1967-1970
  • Roller Skating - 1941-1945, 1948
  • Sailing Club - 1970-1971
  • Seals [honorary swimming, synchronized swimming] Meridel L. Helgeson, The History of the Seals Club (Master's thesis) - 1974
  • Seals Club reports - 1934-1954
  • Seals Annual Files (6 folders) - 1951-1974
  • Seals Annual Files "Cash Book" - 1946-1950
  • Box 14:
  • Seals Annual Files (club and intercollegiate) - 1969-1970
  • Seals Annual Files (intercollegiate) - 1971-1972
  • Seals Annual Files (intramurals) - 1970-1972
  • Seals scorebook - 1970
  • Participant sign-up sheets, undated
  • Box 22:
  • Seals Scrapbook - 1952-1958
  • Box 23:
  • Seals Publicity Posters
  • Seals Scrapbooks - 1958-1959
  • Seals Scrapbooks - 1962-1964
  • Seals Scrapbooks - 1970-1972
  • Series 8: SPORTS GUIDES
  • Box 14:
  • Archery: General (undated)
  • Archery - 1954-1958, 1972-1974
  • Aquatics (also includes Winter Sports, Outing Activities) (2 folders) - 1943-1961
  • Aquatics, Reprint Series - 1938-1963
  • Badminton, General (undated)
  • Badminton - 1940-1945
  • Baseball - 1933
  • Basketball - 1931-1939
  • Box 15:
  • Basketball (3 folders) - 1940-1972
  • Basketball AAU Rules - 1959-60
  • Basketball Reprint Series, articles from (2 folders) - 1936-1964
  • Basketball Miscellaneous, '76' Sports Club pamphlets - 1958-1959
  • Bowling-Fencing-Golf - 1954-1960
  • Box 16:
  • Field Hockey-Lacrosse (3 folders) - 1941-1970
  • Field Hockey-Lacrosse, Reprint Series, articles from - 1930-1954
  • Field Hockey-Lacrosse, U.S. Field Hockey Association - 1951-1953, 1975
  • Football - 1939
  • Ice Hockey (includes Skating, Snowshoeing, Skiing, Tobogganing, Outing Club) - 1931-1932
  • Individual Sports (includes Archery, Fencing, Golf, Riding,Tennis, Bowling) - 1942-1952
  • Recreational Games (includes Bowling, Track and Field, Volleyball) - 1942-1962
  • Box 17:
  • Soccer and Speedball (includes Field Ball, Flag Football) (2 folders) - 1926-1972
  • Softball (includes Volleyball, Track and Field) (3 folders) - 1938-1972
  • Reprint Series, articles from - 1939-1955
  • ASA Guide - 1979
  • Tennis-Badminton (2 folders) - 1946-1968
  • U.S. Lawn Tennis Association Guide - 1947
  • Deck Tennis rules, undated
  • Volleyball - 1957-1971
  • Volleyball, Reprint Series, articles from - 1936-1959
  • Winter Sports-Outing Activities - 1942-1965
  • Box 18:
  • Track and Field (includes Athletic Games, Archery, Golf, Tennis, Intramurals, Volleyball) - 1923-1936
  • Track and Field (includes Athletic Games, Archery, Golf, Tennis, Intramurals, Volleyball) - 1962-1968
  • Track and Field (includes Athletic Games, Archery, Golf, Tennis, Intramurals, Volleyball) Miscellaneous (Guide covers) - 1925-1926, 1932-1933
  • Men's Sports (and Non-Gendered)
  • Basketball - 1947-1963
  • Football - 1945
  • Softball - 1943
  • Swimming - 1928
  • Tumbling - 1927
  • Series 9: ARTIFACTS
  • Box 19:
  • State Sportsday Awards - 1967-1969
  • Fencing Member Pins - 1969
  • Women's Rifle Team Patches, undated
  • Riflery Medal - 1931